• RADAR stands for Radio Detecting And Ranging
  • Radar is a detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects. It can be used to detect aircraft, ships, spacecraft, guided missiles, motor vehicles, weather formations, and terrain.
  • A radar system consists of a transmitter producing electromagnetic waves, a transmitting antenna, a receiving antenna and a receiver and processor to determine properties of the object(s). 
  • Radio waves from the transmitter reflect off the object and return to the receiver, giving information about the object’s location, size and speed

Types of Radars

Monostatic radar

Monostatic radar – is the conventional configuration of a radar system in which the transmitter and receiver are collocated. The monostatic configuration is proven in various applications. It works reliably when the main transmitted signal lob is reflected from the object back to the receiver. However, with the introduction of new technologies (e.g. stealth) which reflect very little or no energy in the direction of the monostatic radar, the efficiency of monostatic configuration is reduced. To mitigate this effect, new radar configurations were developed.r

Bistatic radar

Bistatic radar – is a radar system that comprises of a transmitter and a receiver that are separated by a distance that is equal to the distance of the expected target. A radar in which the transmitter and the receiver are located at the same place is known as a monastic radar. Most long range surface-to-air and air-to-air missiles employ the use of bistatic radar.

Doppler radar

Doppler radar employs the use of Doppler Effect to produce velocity data about an object at a given distance. It has the capacity to give extremely accurate measurements of the radial component of a target’s velocity in relation to the radar. Doppler radars have applications in different industries including aviation, meteorology, healthcare and many others.

Continuous wave radar

Continuous wave radar – is a type of radar where a known stable frequency continuous wave radio energy is transmitted and then received from any of the objects that reflect the waves. A continuous wave radar uses Doppler technology which means the radar will be immune to any form of interference by large objects that are stationary or slow moving.

Advantages of C-UAS Radars

  • C-UAS RADAR can detect drones at long range, providing early alerts
  • C-UAS RADAR can penetrate mediums such as clouds, fogs, mist and snow. The signals used by RADAR technology are not limited or hindered by snow, clouds or fogs. This means that even in the presence of these adverse conditions, data will still be collected.
  • C-UAS RADAR signal can penetrate insulators. Materials that are considered insulators such as rubber and plastic do not hinder RADAR signals from collecting data. The signals will penetrate the materials and capture the necessary data require.
  • C-UAS It can give the exact position of an object. RADAR systems employ the use of electromagnetic to calculate the distance of an object and its exact position on the earth’s surface or space.

Limitations of C-UAS Radars

  • Works well in open areas but generates many false alarms in build-up areas
  • Struggles to detect hovering UAVs
  • Struggles to detect small and nano UAVs
  • Requires labour intensive installations
  • Direction accuracy dependent upon the size (and cost) of the radar (to generate accurate directions less than 0.5 degree), 
  • Active system which requires permissions to operate from radio agency