Crisis Management​ (Response)

Crisis Management Principles

There are six recognized phases within every crisis, including the management of terrorist incidents, which includes: 


                        1.   Warning 
                        2.  Risk Assessment 
                        3. Response 
                        4. Management 
                        5. Resolution 
                        6. Recovery

In Module 7 we will focus upon Response

Crisis Response Management

Establishing Role Clarity and Designating Leadership remains essential to ensuring an effective response to any crisis, including a terrorist drone incident at a public space. 


The GOLD (Strategic), SILVER (Tactical) and BRONZE  (Operational) (GSB) command model for first-responder agencies, offers flexibility and can be applied to any type of crisis. 


It is important to ensure that command structures are subject to regular review. They should be flexible enough to adapt to changes in the nature of the threat, incident or operation without jeopardising clear lines of communication or accountability and ensure that those performing the required roles are sufficiently trained and competent.

GOLD (Strategic) Commander


The GOLD Commander assumes and retains overall command for the operation or incident. They have overall responsibility and authority for the gold strategy and any tactical parameters that Silver or Bronze Commanders should follow. 


The GOLD Commander, however, should not make tactical decisions. They are responsible for ensuring that any tactics deployed are proportionate to the risks identified, meet the objectives of the strategy and are legally compliant. 

SILVER (Tactical) Commander


The SILVER Commander commands and coordinates the overall tactical response in compliance with the strategy, and is the tactical commander of the incident. Generally, there should be one tactical commander, but it may not be practical or desirable in large-scale incidents or operations to have a single SILVER Commander. 


The GOLD Commander (when appointed or in a position to assume command) decides how many SILVER Commanders are appointed and their individual span of command .

BRONZE (Operational) Commander

The BRONZE Commander is responsible for the command of a group of resources, and carrying out functional or geographical responsibilities related to the tactical plan.

The tasks identified by the SILVER Commander are delegated to BRONZE Commanders to deliver in accordance with the priorities set by the silver commander and/or  tactical coordinating group. 

The number of BRONZE Commanders and their roles/specialisms is determined by the scale and nature of the incident.

BRONZE Commander roles are created and disbanded throughout the period of an incident/operation and can be allocated based on geographic or functional considerations.


BRONZE Commanders must have a clear understanding of the SILVER Commander’s tactical plan, for example, what they are required to deliver, in what timescale and with what resources.


Some BRONZE Commander roles require specialist knowledge, skills and expertise and, therefore, should be allocated to individuals or post-holders who are appropriately trained and competent.


In practical, end-user, first-responder practitioner terms, the GSB model ensures designated leadership and establishes role clarity with GOLD Command setting the strategy, SILVER Command implementing the strategy and BRONZE Command carrying out the tasks. 


Taken together, the simple structure, when adopted by all agencies and authorities responding to a terrorist crisis, ensures there is no duplication of effort, maximises the potential of available resources, and directs all emergency service personnel to tackle and resolve the incident efficiently and in full cooperation and coordination with one another. 

Decision Making Model


All GOLD, SILVER and BRONZE Commanders must be able to make clear and informed decisions which includes the process of:


Gathering information and intelligence

Assessing threat and risk and working out a strategy

Considering powers and policies

Identifying options and contingencies

Taking action and reviewing what has happened

Considering the codes and principles of ethics in their decision-making process